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Radiology and Imaging Sciences
Curriculum Vitae for Ronald M. Summers, MD, PhD

Summers Lab Tag Cloud indicating the frequency of occurrence of various words in the lab's publications
Summers Lab Tag Cloud indicating the frequency of occurrence of various words in the lab's publications
(View larger version of Tag Cloud)

Current Appointment

Senior Investigator and Staff Radiologist
Chief, Clinical Image Processing Service
Chief, Imaging Biomarkers and Computer-Aided Diagnosis Laboratory
Specialty: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computer Tomography (CT) Image Processing

Research Interests

  • Virtual Colonoscopy
  • Multiorgan multi-atlas image registration for abdominal CT
  • Computer aided detection of abnormalities on abdominal CT
Education & Training

Degree / Year
BA, 1981
MD & PhD, 1988
1989-93
1993-94

Institution and Field
University of Pennsylvania, Physics
University of Pennsylvania
Radiology Residency, University of Michigan
MRI Fellowship, Duke University

Downloadable Software

Please note: This software is provided as is and without warranty or guarantee of any kind. It is for research purposes only and not to be used for patient care. While we are interested in learning about bugs in the software, no software support of any kind will be provided. If it is used in research, a citation to the publication is required in any publications or presentations.

Persons with disabilities or using assistive technology may find some images which are not fully accessible. For assistance, contact us by sending an e-mail message to Shijun Wang and identify documents/pages for which access is required. We will provide assistance in accessing the content of these files for those who need them. You may also find helpful information on Electronic Accessibility at the NIH Clinical Center.

Selected Publications

Summers RM. Navigational Aids for Real-Time Virtual Bronchoscopy. AJR 168:1165-1170 (1997).

Jones E, Feuerstein IM, Tucker E, Summers RM, Spray TL, Hoeg JM. Aortic hypoplasia in homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Am J Cardiol 81:1242-3 (1998).

Summers RM, Shaw DJ, Shelhamer JH. CT virtual bronchoscopy of simulated endobronchial lesions: effect of scanning, reconstruction, and display settings and potential pitfalls. AJR 170:947-950 (1998).

Summers RM, Selbie WS, Malley JD, Pusanik LM, Dwyer AJ, Courcoutsakis NA, Shaw DJ, Kleiner DE, Sneller MC, Langford CA, Holland SM, Shelhamer JH. Polypoid lesions of airways: early experience with computer-assisted detection by using virtual bronchoscopy and surface curvature. Radiology 208:331-337 (1998).

Summers RM, Andrasko-Bourgeois J, Feuerstein IM, Hill SC, Jones EC, Busse MK, Wise B, Bove KE, Rishforth BA, Tucker E, Spray TL, Hoeg JM. The Evaluation of the Aortic Root by MRI: Insights from Patients with Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia. Circulation 98(6):509-518 (1998).

Kitsiou AN, Srinivasan G, Quyyumi AA, Summers RM, Bacharach SL, Dilsizian V. Stress-Induced Reversible and Mild-to-Moderate Irreversible Thallium Defects: Are They Equally Accurate for Predicting Recovery of Regional Left Ventricular Function After Revascularization? Circulation 98(6):501-508 (1998).

SUMMERS RM, Brune AM, Choyke PL, Chow CK, Patronas NJ, Miller FW, White PH, Malley JD, Rider LG. Juvenile Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathy: Exercise-induced Changes in Muscle at Short Inversion Time Inversion-Recovery MR Imaging. Radiology 209:191-196 (1998).

Kitsiou AN; Bacharach SL; Bartlett ML; Srinivasan G; Summers RM; Quyyumi AA; Dilsizian V. 13N-ammonia myocardial blood flow and uptake: relation to functional outcome of asynergic regions after revascularization. J Am Coll Cardiol Mar;33(3):678-86 (1999).

Luke MC, Darling TN, Hsu R, Summers RM, Smith JA, Solomon BI, Thomas GR, Yancey KB. Mucosal morbidity in patients with epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. Arch Dermatol 135: (8) 954-959 (1999).

Zeh H, Choyke PL, Alexander HR, Bartlett DL, Libutti SK, Chang R, Summers RM. Gadolinium-enhanced 3-D magnetic resonance angiography prior to isolated hepatic perfusion for metastases. J Comput Assist Tomogr 23: (5) 664-669 (1999).

Summers RM, Beaulieu CF, Pusanik LM, Malley JD, Jeffrey RB, Jr., Glazer DI, Napel S. An Automated Polyp Detector for CT Colonography - Feasibility Study. Radiology 216: 284-290 (2000).

Yim PJ, Choyke PL, Summers RM. Grey-scale skeletonization of small vessels in magnetic resonance angiography. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 19(6) 568-576 (2000).

Kimball AB, Summers RM, Turner M, Dugan EM, Hicks J, Miller FW, Rider LG. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Detects Occult Skin and Subcutaneous Abnormalities in Juvenile Dermatomyositis: Implications for Diagnosis and Therapy. Arthritis Rheum, 43: 1866-1873 (2000).

Choyke PL, Yim P, Marcos H, Ho VB, Mullick R, Summers RM. Hepatic MR Angiography: A Multiobserver Comparison of Visualization Methods. Am J Roentgenol AJR 176:465-470 (2001).

Summers RM, Johnson CD, Pusanik LM, Malley JD, Youssef AM, Reed JE. Automated Polyp Detection at CT Colonography: Feasibility Assessment in a Human Population. Radiology 219:51-59 (2001).

Summers RM, Choyke PL, Patronas NJ, Tucker E, Wise B, Busse MK, Brewer HB, Shamburek RD. Magnetic resonance virtual angioscopy of thoracic aortic atherosclerosis in homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. J Comput Assist Tomogr 25: (3) 371-377 (2001).

Summers RM, Aggarwal NR, Sneller MC, Cowan MJ, Wood BJ, Langford CA, Shelhamer JH. CT Virtual Bronchoscopy of the Central Airways in Wegener's Granulomatosis pdf icon (838 KB) [disclaimer]. Chest 121:242-250 (2002).

Hicks JE, Drinkard B, Summers RM, Rider RG. Decreased aerobic capacity in children with juvenile dermatomyositis. Arthritis and Rheumatism (Arthritis Care and Research), 47: 118-123 (2002).

Finkelstein SE, Summers RM, Nguyen DM, Stewart JH, Tretler JA, Schrump DS. Virtual bronchoscopy for evaluation of thoracic malignancies. J Thoracic Cardiovasc Surg 123: 967-72 (2002).

Summers RM. Challenges for Computer-Aided Diagnosis for CT Colonography pdf icon (1.5 MB) [disclaimer]. (Invited review article) Abdom Imaging, 27:268-274 (2002).

Jerebko AK, Summers RM, Malley JD, Franaszek M, Johnson CD. Computer-assisted detection of colonic polyps with CT colonography using neural networks and binary classification trees. Med Phys 30(1) 52-60 (2003).

Jerebko AK, Malley JD, Franaszek M, Summers RM. Multi Neural Network Classification Scheme for Detection of Colonic Polyps in CT Colonography Data Sets . Acad Radiol 10 (2): 154-160 (2003).

Finkelstein SE, Schrump DS, Nguyen DM, Hewitt SM, Kunst TF, Summers RM. Comparative evaluation of super-high resolution computed tomography and virtual bronchoscopy for the detection of tracheobronchial malignancies. Chest 124(5):1834-1840 (2003). See movies at http://www.chestjournal.org/cgi/content/full/124/5/1834/DC1 [disclaimer]

Iordanescu G, Summers RM. Automated centerline for computed tomography colonography. Academic Radiology 10:1291-1301 (2003).

Yao J, Miller M, Franaszek M, Summers RM. Colonic polyp segmentation in CT colonography based on fuzzy clustering and deformable models. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 23:1344-1352 (2004).

Solomon J, Mavinkurve S, Cox D, Summers RM. Computer assisted detection of subcutaneous melanomas: feasibility assessment. Academic Radiology 11(6):678-685 (2004).

Cebral JR, Summers RM. Tracheal and Central Bronchial Aerodynamics Using Virtual Bronchoscopy and Computational Fluid Dynamics IEEE Trans Med Imaging 23 (8): 1021-1033 (2004).

Summers RM, Yao J, Johnson CD. CT Colonography with Computer-Aided Detection: Automated Recognition of Ileocecal Valve to Reduce Number of False-Positive Detections. Radiology 233:266-272 (2004).

Summers RM, Franaszek M, Miller MT, Pickhardt PJ, Choi JR, Schindler WR. Computer-Aided Detection of Polyps on Oral Contrast-Enhanced CT Colonography. Am J Roentgenol AJR 184:105-108 (2005).

Huber AM, Feldman BM, Rennebohm RM, Hicks JE, Lindsley CB, Perez MD, Zemel LS, Wallace CA, Ballinger SH, Passo MH, Reed AM, Summers RM, White PH, Katona IM, Miller FW, Lachenbruch PA, Rider LG. Validation and clinical significance of the childhood myositis assessment scale for assessment of muscle function in the juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Arthritis Rheum 50 (5): 1595-1603 (2004).

Iordanescu G, Summers RM. Reduction of false positives on the rectal tube in computer-aided detection for CT colonography. Med Phys 31 (10):2855-2862 (2004).

Iordanescu G, Pickhardt PJ, Choi JR, Summers RM. Automated Seed Placement for Colon Segmentation in CT Colonography. Academic Radiology 12: 182-190 (2005).

Jerebko AK, Malley JD, Franaszek M and Summers RM. Support vector machines committee classification method for computer-aided polyp detection in CT colonography. Academic Radiology 12: 479-486 (2005).

Summers RM, Yao J, Pickhardt PJ, Franaszek M, Bitter I, Brickman D, Krishna V, Choi JR. Computed tomographic virtual colonoscopy computer-aided polyp detection in a screening population. Gastroenterology 129: 1832-1844 (2005).

O'Connor SD , Summers RM, Choi JR, Pickhardt PJ. Oral Contrast Adherence to Polyps on CT Colonography. J Comput Assist Tomogr 30(1):51-57 (2006).

Franaszek M, Summers RM, Pickhardt PJ, Choi JR. Hybrid Segmentation of Colon Filled with Air and Opacified Fluid for CT Colonography. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 25(3):358-368 (2006).

Johnson KT, Johnson CD, Fletcher JG, MacCarty RL, Summers RM. CT Colonography using 360° Virtual Dissection: A Feasibility Study. AJR 186:90-95 (2006).

Summers RM, Huang A, Yao J, Campbell SR, Dempsey JE, Dwyer AJ, Franaszek M, Brickman DS, Bitter I, Petrick N, Hara AK. Assessment of Polyp and Mass Histopathology by Intravenous Contrast-enhanced CT Colonography. Academic Radiology, accepted for publication.

Summers RM, Yao J, Pickhardt PJ, Franaszek M, Bitter I, Brickman D, Krishna V, Choi JR. Computed tomographic virtual colonoscopy computer-aided polyp detection in a screening population. Gastroenterology 129: 1832-1844 (2005). [Article highlighted in an accompanying editorial: Bond JH. Progress in refining virtual colonoscopy for colorectal cancer screening. Gastroenterology 129: 2103-2106 (2005).]

O'Connor SD, Summers RM, Yao J, Pickhardt PJ, Choi JR. CT Colonography with Computer Aided Polyp Detection: Volume and Attenuation Thresholds to Reduce False Positive Findings Owing to the Ileocecal Valve. Radiology 241(2):426-432 (2006).

Yeshwant SC, Summers RM, Yao J, Brickman D, Choi JR, Pickhardt PJ. Polyps: Linear and Volumetric Measurement at CT Colonography. Radiology 241(3):802-811 (2006).

Bitter I, Van Uitert R, Wolf I, Tzatha E, Gharib AM, Summers RM, Meinzer H-P, and Pettigrew R. Virtual Contrast for Coronary Vessels Based on Level Set Generated Subvoxel Accurate Centerlines. Intl J Biomed Imaging, Volume 2006, Article ID 94025, 8 pages (2006).

Li J, Yao J, Summers RM, Petrick N, Hara A. An efficient feature selection algorithm for computer-aided polyp detection. International Journal on Artificial Intelligence Tools 15(6):893-915 (2006).

Frentz SM, Summers RM. Current Status of CT Colonography. Academic Radiology 13:1517-1531 (2006). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1764496

Summers RM, Huang A, Yao J, Campbell SR, Dempsey JE, Dwyer AJ, Franaszek M, Brickman DS, Bitter I, Petrick N, Hara AK. Assessment of Polyp and Mass Histopathology by Intravenous Contrast-enhanced CT Colonography. Academic Radiology 13:1490-1495 (2006).

O'Connor SD, Yao J, Summers RM. Lytic Metastases in Thoracolumbar Spine: Computer Aided Detection at CT -- Preliminary Study. Radiology 242(3): 811-816 + supplemental material (2007); erratum Radiology 244(1): 320 (2007). Images featured on the cover of the journal.

Huang A, Roy D, Summers RM, Franaszek M, Petrick N, Choi JR, Pickhardt PJ. Teniae Coli-Based Circumferential Localization System for CT Colonography: Feasibility Study. Radiology 243(2):551-560 (2007) and supplemental material at http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/243/2/551/DC1 [disclaimer].

Van Uitert RL, Summers RM. Automatic correction of level set based subvoxel precise centerlines for virtual colonoscopy using the colon outer wall. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 26(8):1069-1078 (2007).

Yao J, Summers RM. Adaptive deformable model for colonic polyp segmentation and measurement on CT colonography. Med Phys 34(5):1655-1664 (2007).

Fletcher JG, Booya F, Summers RM, Roy D, Guendel L, Schmidt B, McCollough CH, Fidler JL. Comparative Performance of Two Polyp Detection Systems on CT Colonography. AJR 189:277-282 (2007).

Deshpande KK, Summers RM, Van Uitert RL, Franaszek M, Brown L, Dwyer AJ, Fletcher JG, Choi JR, Pickhardt PJ. Quality Assessment for CT Colonography: Validation of Automated Measurement of Colonic Distention and Residual Fluid. AJR 189:1457-1463 (2007).

Petrick N, Haider M, Summers RM, Yeshwant SC, Brown L, Iuliano EM, Louie A, Choi JR, Pickhardt PJ. CT Colonography with Computer-Aided Detection as a Second Reader: Observer Performance Study. Radiology 246(1):148-156 (2008); erratum Radiology 248(2): 704 (2008).

Wang S, Yao J, Summers RM. Improved classifier for computer-aided polyp detection in CT Colonography by nonlinear dimensionality reduction. Med Phys 35(4):1377-1386 (2008). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2669284

Summers RM, Handwerker LR, Pickhardt PJ, Van Uitert RL, Deshpande KK, Yeshwant S, Yao J, Franaszek M. Performance of a Previously Validated CT Colonography CAD System in a New Patient Population. AJR 191:168-174 (2008).

Li J, Van Uitert R, Yao J, Petrick N, Franaszek M, Huang A, Summers RM. Wavelet Method for CT Colonography Computer-aided Polyp Detection. Medical Physics 35(8):3527-3538 (2008). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2562642

Van Uitert RL, Summers RM, White JM, Deshpande KK, Choi JR, Pickhardt PJ. Temporal and Multi-Institutional Quality Assessment of CT Colonography. AJR 191:1503-1508 (2008). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2585516

Summers RM, Frentz S, Liu J, Yao J, Brown L, Louie A, Barlow DS, Jensen DW, Dwyer AJ, Pickhardt PJ, Petrick N. Conspicuity of Colorectal Polyps at CT Colonography: Visual Assessment, CAD Performance, and the Important Role of Polyp Height. Academic Radiology 16:4-14 (2009). [Article highlighted in an accompanying editorial: Krupinski EA. What can the radiologist teach CAD: lessons from CT colonoscopy. Academic Radiology 16:1-3 (2009).]

Yao J, Li J, Summers RM. Employing Topographical Height Map in Colonic Polyp Measurement and False Positive Reduction. Pattern Recognition 42:1029-1040 (2009). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2659680

Linguraru MG, Yao J, Gautam R, Peterson J, Li Z, Linehan WM, Summers RM. Renal Tumor Quantification and Classification in Contrast-Enhanced Abdominal CT. Pattern Recognition 42: 1149-1161 (2009). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2658597

Liu J, Yao J, Summers RM. Scale-based scatter correction for computer-aided polyp detection in CT colonography. Medical Physics 35(12):5664-5671 (2008). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2644449

Li J, Huang A, Yao J, Liu J, Van Uitert RL, Petrick NA, Summers RM. Optimizing Computer-aided Colonic Polyp Detection for CT Colonography by Evolving the Pareto Front. Medical Physics 36(1):201-212 (2009). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2654220

Summers RM, Swift JA, Dwyer AJ, Choi JR, Pickhardt PJ. Normalized Distance Along the Colon Centerline: A Method for Correlating Polyp Location on CT Colonography and Optical Colonoscopy. AJR 193:1296-1304 (2009). [Article highlighted in an accompanying editorial: Dachman AH. Comparison of Optical Colonoscopy and CT Colonography for Polyp Detection AJR 193:1289-1290 (2009).]

Summers RM, Liu J, Yao J, Brown L, Choi JR, Pickhardt PJ. Automated Measurement of Colorectal Polyp Height at CT Colonography: Hyperplastic Polyps are Flatter than Adenomatous Polyps. AJR 193:1305-1310 (2009).

Wang S, Yao J, Liu J, Petrick N, Van Uitert RL, Periaswamy S, Summers RM. Registration of prone and supine CT colonography scans using correlation optimized warping and canonical correlation analysis. Medical Physics 36 (12): 5595-5603 (2009).

Linguraru MG, Sandberg JK, Li Z, Shah F, Summers RM. Automated segmentation and quantification of liver and spleen from CT images using normalized probabilistic atlases and enhancement estimation. Medical Physics 37(2): 771-783 (2010).

Yuan S, Roney CA, Wierwille, J, Chen, C-W, Xu B, Jiang J, Hongzhou Ma, Cable A, Summers RM, Chen Y. Combining optical coherence tomography with fluorescence molecular imaging: towards simultaneous morphology and molecular imaging. Phys. Med. Biol. 55:191-206 (2010).

Wang S, Yao J, Petrick N, Summers RM. Combining Statistical and Geometric Features for Colonic Polyp Detection in CTC Based on Multiple Kernel Learning. International Journal of Computational Intelligence and Applications. International J Computational Intelligence and Applications 9 (1):1-15 (2010).

Linguraru MG, Pura J, Van Uitert RL Mukherjee N, Summers RM, Minniti C, Gladwin MT, Kato G, Machado RF, Wood BJ. Segmentation and Quantification of Pulmonary Artery for Non-invasive CT Assessment of Sickle Cell Secondary Pulmonary Hypertension. Medical Physics 37(4):1522-1532 (2010).

Summers RM. The Elephant in the Room: Bowel Preparation for CT Colonography. Academic Radiology 16(7):777-779 (2009).

Summers RM. Improving the accuracy of CTC interpretation: Computer-aided detection. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America 20(2):245-257 (2010).

Summers RM. Polyp size measurement at CT colonography: What do we know and what do we need to know? Radiology 255(3):707-720 (2010).

Summers RM. Dose Reduction in CT: The Time Is Now. Academic Radiology 17 (10):
1201-1202 (2010).

Yao J, Chowdhury AS, Aman J, Summers RM. Reversible Projection Technique for Colon Unfolding. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 57(12) 2861-2869 (2010).

Chowdhury AS, Tan S, Yao J, Summers RM. Colonic Fold Detection from Computed Tomographic Colonography Images using Diffusion-FCM and Level Sets. Pattern Recognition Letters 31(9):876-883 (2010).

Huang A, Li J, Summers RM, Petrick N, Hara AK. Improving polyp detection algorithms for CT colonography: Pareto front approach. Pattern Recognition Letters 31:1461-1469 (2010).

Summers RM, Liu J, Rehani B, Stafford P, Brown L, Louie A, Barlow DS, Jensen DW, Cash B, Choi JR, Pickhardt PJ, Petrick N. CT colonography computer-aided polyp detection: effect on radiologist observers of polyp identification by CAD on both the supine and prone scans. Academic Radiology 17:948-959 (2010). [Article highlighted in an accompanying editorial: Nappi JJ. CADe prompts and observer performance: A game of confidence. Academic Radiology 17:945-947 (2010).]

Dachman AH, Obuchowski NA, Hoffmeister JW, Hinshaw JL, Frew MI, Winter TC, Van Uitert RL, Periaswamy S, Summers RM, Hillman BJ. Effect of Computer-aided Detection for CT Colonography in a Multireader, Multicase Trial. Radiology 256(3):827-835 (2010) + supplemental material [Article highlighted in an accompanying podcast].

Roney CA, Xu B, Xie J, Yuan S, Wierwille J, Chen C-W, Chen Y, Griffiths GL, and Summers RM. Rh-I-UEA-1 polymerized liposomes target and image adenomatous polyps in the APCMin/+ mouse using optical colonography. Molecular Imaging 10(4):305-316 (2011). Images featured on the cover of the journal.

Summers RM, Baecher N, Yao J, Liu J, Pickhardt PJ, Choi JR, Hill S. Feasibility of Simultaneous CT Colonography and Fully-Automated Bone Mineral Densitometry in a Single Examination. J Comput Assist Tomogr 35:212-216 (2011).

Yao J, Dwyer A, Summers RM, Mollura DJ. Computer-aided Diagnosis of Pulmonary Infections Using Texture Analysis and Support Vector Machine Classification. Acad Radiol 18(3):306-14 (2011).

Chen X, Yao J, Summers R. FEM-Based 3-D Tumor Growth Prediction for Kidney Tumor. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 58(3):463-467 (2011).

Pickhardt PJ, Lee LJ, Munoz del Rio A, Lauder T, Bruce RJ, Summers RM, Pooler BD, Binkley N. Simultaneous screening for osteoporosis at CT colonography: Bone mineral density assessment using MDCT attenuation techniques compared against the DXA reference standard. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 26(9):2194-203 (2011).

Liu J, Kabadi S, Van Uitert R, Petrick N, Deriche R, Summers RM. Improved Computer-Aided Detection of Small Polyps in CT Colonography using Interpolation for Curvature Estimation. Med Phys 38 (7): 4276-4284 (2011).

Linguraru MG, Wang, SJ, Shah F, Gautam R, Peterson J, Linehan WM, Summers RM. Automated noninvasive classification of renal cancer on multiphase CT. Med Phys
38 (10): 5738-5746 (2011).

Linguraru MG, Panjwani N, Fletcher JG, Summers RM. Automated Image-based Colon Cleansing for Laxative-free CT Colonography Computer-aided Polyp Detection. Med Phys 38(12):6633-6642 (2011).

Nguyen TB, Wang SW, Anugu V, Rose N, McKenna M, Petrick N, Burns JE, Summers RM. Distributed Human Intelligence for Colonic Polyp Classification in Computer-aided Detection for CT Colonography. Radiology 262(3):824-833 (2012) + supplemental material. Published online before print January 24, 2012, doi: 10.1148/radiol.11110938.

Wei Z, Yao J, Wang S, Liu J, Summers RM. Automated Teniae Coli Detection and Identification on Computed Tomographic Colonography. Med Phys 39(2):964-975 (2012).

Summers RM, Liu J, Sussman DL, Dwyer AJ, Rehani B, Pickhardt PJ, Choi JR, Yao J. Association Between Visceral Adiposity and Colorectal Polyps on CT Colonography. AJR 199:48–57 (2012). [Article selected for the "AJR Journal Club"]

Chen X, Summers RM, Cho M, Bagci U, Yao J. An Automatic Method for Renal Cortex Segmentation on CT images: Evaluation on Kidney Donors. Acad Radiol 19(5):562-570 (2012).

Wang S, McKenna MT, Nguyen TB, Burns JE, Petrick N, Sahiner B, Summers RM. Seeing is Believing: Video Classification for Computed Tomographic Colonography Using Multiple-Instance Learning. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 31(5):1141-1153 (2012).

Linguraru MG, Pura JA, Vivek Pamulapati V, Summers RM. Statistical 4D Graphs for Multi-Organ Abdominal Segmentation from Multiphase CT. Medical Image Analysis 16:904-914 (2012).

Linguraru MG, Sandberg JK, Jones EC, Petrick N, Summers RM. Assessing Hepatomegaly: Automated Volumetric Analysis of the Liver. Acad Radiol 19:588-598 (2012).

Wang S, Petrick N, Van Uitert RL, Periaswamy S, Wei Z, Summers RM. Matching 3D Prone and Supine CT Colonography Scans Using Graphs. IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine 16(4):676-682 (2012).

McKenna MT, Wang S, Nguyen TB, Burns JE, Petrick N, Summers RM. Strategies for Improved Interpretation of Computer-Aided Detections for CT Colonography Utilizing Distributed Human Intelligence. Medical Image Analysis 16:1280-1292 (2012).

Liu J, Chang KW, Jianhua Yao, Summers RM. Predicting Polyp Location on Optical Colonoscopy from CT Colonography by Minimal-energy Curve Modeling of the Colonoscope Path. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 59(12):3531-3540 (2012).

Linguraru MG, Richbourg WJ, Liu J, Watt JM, Pamulapati V, Wang S, Summers RM. Tumor Burden Analysis on Computed Tomography by Automated Liver and Tumor Segmentation. IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 31(10):1965-1976 (2012).

Chen X, Nacif MS, Liu S, Sibley C, Summers RM, Bluemke DA, Yao J. A Framework of Whole Heart Extracellular Volume Fraction Estimation for Low-Dose Cardiac CT Images. IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in BioMedicine 16(5):842-851 (2012).

Summers RM. Evaluation of Computer-aided Detection Devices: Consensus is Developing. Academic Radiology 19:377-379 (2012).

Wang S, Summers RM. Machine Learning and Radiology. Medical Image Analysis 16:933–951 (2012).

Yao J, Bliton J, Summers RM. Automatic Segmentation and Measurement of Pleural Effusions on CT. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering in press.

Burns JE, Yao J, Wiese T, Munoz H, Jones EC, Summers RM. Automated Detection of Sclerotic Metastases in the Thoracolumbar Spine on Computed Tomography. Radiology in press.

Chen X, Summers RM, Yao J. Kidney Tumor Growth Prediction by Coupling Reaction-Diffusion and Biomechanical Model. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 60(1): 169-173 (2012).

Linguraru MG, Sandberg JK, Jones EC, Summers RM. Assessing Splenomegaly: Automated Volumetric Analysis of the Spleen. Academic Radiology in press.

Nacif MS, Liu Y, Yao J, Liu S, Sibley CT, Summers RM, Bluemke DA. 3D left ventricular extracellular volume fraction by low-radiation dose cardiac CT: Assessment of interstitial myocardial fibrosis. Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography 7:51-57 (2013).

Conference Proceedings and Other Articles

Summers RM, Pusanik LM, and Malley JD. Automatic detection of endobronchial lesions with virtual bronchoscopy: comparison of two methods In Medical Imaging 1998: Image Processing, Kenneth M. Hanson, Editor, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 3338, 327-335 (1998).

Summers RM. Image gallery: a tool for rapid endobronchial lesion detection and display using virtual bronchoscopy. J Digital Imaging 11 (3, Suppl 1 (August)): 53-55 (1998).

Summers RM, Pusanik LM, Malley JD and Hoeg JM. Fractal analysis of virtual endoscopy reconstructions. In Medical Imaging 1999: Physiology and Function from Multidimensional Images, Chen, C-T and Clough, AV, Eds., Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 3660, 258-269 (1999).

Yim PJ and Summers RM. Analytic surface reconstruction by local threshold estimation in the case of simple intensity contrasts. In Medical Imaging 1999: Physiology and Function from Multidimensional Images, Chen, C-T and Clough, AV, Eds., Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 3660, 288-300 (1999).

Summers RM. Virtual Bronchoscopy Using VRML. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, Vol. 19 No. 3 (May/June) pp. 27-29 (1999).

Summers RM, Sneller MC, Langford CA, Shelhamer JH and Wood BJ. Improved Virtual Bronchoscopy Using a Multi-Slice Helical CT Scanner. In Medical Imaging 2000: Physiology and Function from Multidimensional Images, Chen C-T and Clough AV, Eds., Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 3978, 117-121 (2000).

Yim PJ, Mullick R, Summers RM, Marcos H, Cebral JR, Lohner R, Choyke PL. Measurement of stenosis from magnetic resonance angiography using vessel skeletons. In Medical Imaging 2000: Physiology and Function from Multidimensional Images, Chen C-T and Clough AV, Eds., Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 3978, 245-254 (2000).

Summers RM, Pusanik LM, Malley JD, Reed JE, Johnson CD. Method of labeling colonic polyps at CT colonography using computer-assisted detection. In Proceedings of 14th International Congress of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery (CARS), 785-789 (2000).

Summers RM, Cebral Jr. Tracheal and Central Bronchial Aerodynamics Using Virtual Bronchoscopy. In Medical Imaging 2001: Physiology and Function from Multidimensional Images, Chen, C-T and Clough, AV, Eds., Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 4321, pp. 22-31 (2001).

Here are several AVI movies showing the complexity of airflow through a narrowed bronchus. The movies show instantaneous pressure, streamlines and velocity:

airway0.avi Windows Media Player icon     cuts.avi Windows Media Player icon      ps_far.avi Windows Media Player icon      ps_near.avi Windows Media Player icon     ss_far.avi Windows Media Player icon      ss_near.avi Windows Media Player icon      veloc.avi Windows Media Player icon

Summers RM, Jerebko AK, Franaszek M, Malley JD. An Integrated System for Computer-Aided Diagnosis in CT Colonography: Work-in-Progress. In Proceedings of 15th International Congress of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery (CARS), in press (2001).

Summers RM, Mullick R, Finkelstein SE, Schrump DS. Confocal volume rendering of the thorax. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, Thessaloniki, Greece, October 7-10, 2001, pp. 297-299.

Summers RM, Agcaoili CML, McAuliffe MJ, Dalal SS, Yim PJ, Choyke PL, Walther MM, Linehan WM. Helical CT of von Hippel-Lindau: Semi-automated Segmentation of Renal Lesions. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, Thessaloniki, Greece, October 7-10, 2001, pp.293-296.

Jerebko AK, Malley JD, Franaszek M, Summers RM. Multi network classification scheme for detection of colonic polyps in CT colonography data sets. In Medical Imaging 2002: Physiology and Function from Multidimensional Images, Chen, C-T and Clough, AV, Eds., Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 4683, 207-212 (2002).

Summers RM. Current concepts and future directions in computer-aided diagnosis for CT colonography, syllabus chapter for Third International Symposium on Virtual Colonoscopy, 68-72 (2002); and Proceedings of CARS, 16th International Congress and Exhibition, pp. 743-748 (2002).

Miller M, Jerebko AK, Malley JD, Summers RM. Comparison of stochastic vs. heuristic feature subset selection methods for improving classification algorithms in computer-aided detection. In Medical Imaging 2003: Physiology and Function from Multidimensional Images, Clough AV and Amini A, Eds., Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 5031, 102-110 (2003).

Malley JD, Jerebko AK, Summers RM. Committee of support vector machines for detection of colonic polyps from CT scans. In Medical Imaging 2003: Physiology and Function from Multidimensional Images, Clough AV and Amini A, Eds., Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 5031, 570-578 (2003).

Jerebko AK, Teerlink S, Franaszek M, Summers RM. Polyp segmentation method for CT colonography computer-aided detection. In Medical Imaging 2003: Physiology and Function from Multidimensional Images, Clough AV and Amini A, Eds., Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 5031, 359-369 (2003).

Yao J, Miller M, Summers RM. Automatic segmentation and detection of colonic polyps in CT colonography based on knowledge-guided deformable models . In Medical Imaging 2003: Physiology and Function from Multidimensional Images, Clough AV and Amini A, Eds., Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 5031, 370-380 (2003).

Iordanescu G, Summers RM. Benefits of centerline analysis for CT colonography computer-aided polyp detection. In Medical Imaging 2003: Physiology and Function from Multidimensional Images, Clough AV and Amini A, Eds., Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 5031, 388-397 (2003).

Jerebko AK, Malley JD, Franaszek M, Summers RM. Computer-aided polyp detection in CT colonography using an ensemble of support vector machines. In CARS 2003. Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery. Proceedings of the 17th International Congress and Exhibition, H. U. Lemke, M.W. Vannier, K. Inamura, A.G. Farman, K. Doi and J. H.C. Reiber, Eds., Vol. 1256, 1019 - 1024 (2003).

Linguraru MG, Richbourg WJ, Watt JM, Pamulapati V, Summers RM. Liver and Tumor Segmentation and Analysis from CT of Diseased Patients via a Generic Affine Invariant Shape Parameterization and Graph Cuts. In: Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention - MICCAI Workshop on Computational and Clinical Applications in Abdominal Imaging, Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume 7029, Springer New York pp. 198-206 (2012).

Panjwani N, Linguraru MG, Fletcher JG, Summers RM. Computer-aided Polyp Detection for Laxative-free CT Colonography. In: Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention - MICCAI Workshop on Computational and Clinical Applications in Abdominal Imaging, Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume 7029, Springer New York pp. 18-26 (2012).

Okada T, Linguraru MG, Yoshida Y, Hori M, Summers RM, Chen YW, Tomiyama N, Sato Y. Abdominal Multi-Organ Segmentation of CT Images Based on Hierarchical Spatial Modeling of Organ Interrelations. In: Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention - MICCAI Workshop on Computational and Clinical Applications in Abdominal Imaging, Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume 7029, Springer New York pp. 173-180 (2012).

Suzuki M, Linguraru MG, Summers RM, Okada K. Analyses of Missing Organs in Abdominal Multi-Organ Segmentation. In: Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention - MICCAI Workshop on Computational and Clinical Applications in Abdominal Imaging, Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume 7029, Springer New York pp. 256-263 (2012).

Chowdhury AS, Burns J, Sen B, Mukherjee A, Yao J, Summers RM. Detection of pelvic fractures using graph cuts and curvatures. 2011 18th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing. pp. 1605-1608 (2011).

Faruque JS, Rubin DL, Beaulieu CF, Rosenberg J, Summers RM, Kamaya A, Tye G, Napel S. A Scalable Reference Standard of Visual Similarity for a Content-Based Image Retrieval System. IEEE HISB (Healthcare Informatics, Imaging and Systems
Biology) pp. 158-165 (2011).

Linguraru MG, Richbourg W, Pamulapati V, Wang S, Summers RM. Robust automated detection, segmentation and classification of hepatic tumors from CT data. SPIE Medical Imaging 2012: Biomedical Applications in Molecular, Structural, and Functional Imaging, Vol. 8317 paper 83170J (2012).

Chen X, Summers RM, Nacif MS, Liu S, Bluemke DA, Yao J. A framework of whole heart extracellular volume fraction estimation for low dose cardiac CT images.
SPIE Medical Imaging 2012: Image Processing, Vol. 8314 paper 831429 (2012).

Liu J, Hua J, Chellappa V, Petrick NA, Sahiner B, Farooqui M, Marti G, Wiestner A, Summers RM. Automatic detection of axillary lymphadenopathy on CT scans of untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. SPIE Medical Imaging 2012:
Computer-Aided Diagnosis, Vol. 8315 paper 83150B (2012).

McKenna MT, Wang S, Nguyen T, Burns J, Petrick NA, Sahiner B, Summers RM.
Computer vision approach to detect colonic polyps in computed tomographic colonography. SPIE Medical Imaging 2012: Computer-Aided Diagnosis, Vol. 8315 paper 83151S (2012).

Zhang W, Liu J, Yao J, Nguyen T, Louie A, Wank S, Summers RM. Computer-aided mesenteric small vessel segmentation on high-resolution 3D contrast-enhanced CT angiography scans. SPIE Medical Imaging 2012: Computer-Aided Diagnosis, Vol.
8315 paper 83151T (2012).

Yao J, Burns J, Wiese T, Summers RM. Quantitative vertebral compression fracture evaluation using a height compass. SPIE Medical Imaging 2012: Computer-Aided Diagnosis, Vol. 8315 paper 83151X (2012).

Wei Z, Yao J, Zhang W, Wang S, Liu J, Summers RM. Computer-aided marginal artery detection on computed tomographic colonography. SPIE Medical Imaging 2012:
Computer-Aided Diagnosis, Vol. 8315 paper 83150Z (2012).

Wiese T, Yao J, Burns J, Summers RM. Detection of sclerotic bone metastases in the spine using watershed algorithm and graph cut. SPIE Medical Imaging 2012:
Computer-Aided Diagnosis, Vol. 8315 paper 831512 (2012).

Chowdhury AS, Burns JE, Mukherjee A, Sen B, Yao J, Summers RM. Automated detection of pelvic fractures from volumetric CT images. 2012 9th IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI), pp. 1687 – 1690 (2012).

Zhang W, Liu J, Yao J, Nguyen TB, Louie A, Wank S, Nowinski WL, Summers RM.
Mesenteric vasculature-guided small bowel segmentation on high-resolution 3D CT angiography scans. 2012 9th IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI), pp. 1280 – 1283 (2012).

Liu J, Feng C-H, Hua J, Yao J, White JM, Summers RM. Automatic detection and segmentation of abdominopelvic lymph nodes on computed tomography scans. 2012 9th IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI), pp. 1455 – 1458 (2012).

Wei Z, Wang S, Petrick N, Yao J, Periaswamy S, Summers RM. Supine and prone CT colonography registration by matching graphs of teniae coli. 2012 9th IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI), pp. 712 – 715 (2012).

Wang S, McKenna M, Petrick N, Sahiner B, Linguraru MG, Wei Z, Yao J, Summers RM.
ROC-like optimization by sample ranking: Application to CT colonography. 2012 9th IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI), pp. 478 – 481 (2012).

Yao J, Burns JE, Summers RM. Sclerotic rib metastases detection on routine CT images. 2012 9th IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI), pp.
1767 - 1770 (2012).

Yao J, Burns J, Muñoz H, Summers R. Detection of Vertebral Body Fractures Based on Cortical Shell Unwrapping. MICCAI, Part III, LNCS 7512:509-516 (2012).

Wang S, Liu P, Turkbey B, Choyke P, Pinto P, Summers R. Gaussian Process Inference for Estimating Pharmacokinetic Parameters of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR Images. MICCAI, Part III, LNCS 7512:582-589 (2012).

Liu J, Wang S, Linguraru MG, Summers RM. Tumor Sensitive Matching Flow: An Approach for Ovarian Cancer Metastasis Detection and Segmentation. 4th MICCAI Workshop on Computational and Clinical Applications in Abdominal Imaging, LNCS 7601:188-197 (2012).

Huang J, Bluemke DA, Zhang X, Summers RM, Folio LR, Yao J. A Cross-Platform and Distributive Database System for Cumulative Tumor Measurement. 34th Annual International IEEE EMBS Conference, pp. 1266-1269 (2012).

Liu Y, Nacif M, Liu S, Sibley CT, Bluemke DA, Summers RM, Yao J. Point-Guided Modeling and Segmentation of Myocardium for Low Dose Cardiac CT Images. 34th Annual International IEEE EMBS Conference, pp. 5327-5330 (2012).

Okada T, Linguraru MG, Hori M, Suzuki Y, Summers RM, Tomiyama N, Sato Y. Multi-Organ Segmentation in Abdominal CT Images. 34th Annual International IEEE EMBS Conference, pp. 3986-3989 (2012).

Liu Y, Liu S, Lardo AC, Nacif MN, Bluemke DA, Summers RM, Yao J. Build 4-Dimensional Myocardial Model for Dynamic CT Images. SPIE Medical Imaging 2013: Image Processing, Vol. 8669 paper 61 (2013).

Liu J, Linguraru MG, Wang S, Summers RM. Automatic segmentation of kidneys from non-contrast CT images using efficient belief propagation. SPIE Medical Imaging 2013: Computer-Aided Diagnosis, Vol. 8670 paper 4 (2013).

Liu J, Wang S, Linguraru MG, Summers RM. Robust detection of renal calculi from non-contract CT images using tv-flow and mser features. SPIE Medical Imaging 2013: Computer-Aided Diagnosis, Vol. 8670 paper 5 (2013).

Zhang W, Liu J, Yao J, Summers RM. Segmenting the thoracic, abdominal and pelvic musculature on CT scans combining atlas-based model and active contour model. SPIE Medical Imaging 2013: Computer-Aided Diagnosis, Vol. 8670 paper 7 (2013).

Muñoz HE, Yao J, Burns JE, Summers RM. Detection of vertebral degenerative disc disease based on cortical shell unwrapping. SPIE Medical Imaging 2013: Computer-Aided Diagnosis, Vol. 8670 paper 11 (2013).

Liu PR, Wang S, Turkbey B, Grant K, Pinto PA, Choyke P, Wood BJ, Summers RM. A prostate cancer computer-aided diagnosis system using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging and targeted biopsy labels. SPIE Medical Imaging 2013: Computer-Aided Diagnosis, Vol. 8670 paper 51 (2013).

Wei Z, Zhang W, Liu J, Yao J, Wang S, Summers RM. Computer-aided detection of typhlitis on computed tomographic using visual codebook. SPIE Medical Imaging 2013: Computer-Aided Diagnosis, Vol. 8670 paper 85 (2013).

Yao J, Liu Y, Chen F, Summers RM, Bhattacharyya T. Computer assisted measurement of femoral cortex thickening on radiographs. SPIE Medical Imaging 2013: Computer-Aided Diagnosis, Vol. 8670 paper 121 (2013).

Huang J, Ling A, Summers RM, Yao J. Integration of PACS and CAD systems using DICOMDIR and open-source tools. SPIE Medical Imaging 2013: Advanced PACS-based Imaging Informatics and Therapeutic Applications, Vol. 8674 paper 32 (2013).

Abstracts

Burns JE, Yao J, Wiese T, Summers RM. Automated Detection and Analysis of Sclerotic Lesions in the Spine on Computed Tomography Images. In: Proceeding of Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) Annual Meeting 2011, p. 143.

Richbourg WJ, Linguraru M, Watt JM, Pamulapati V, Summers RM. Automated CT Liver and Tumor Analysis in Patients with Complex Liver Diseases. In: Proceeding of Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) Annual Meeting 2011, p. 175.

Nguyen TB, Wang S, McKenna M, Petrick N, Burns JE, Summers RM. Distributed Human Intelligence for Colonic Polyp Classification in Computer-aided Detection for CT Colonography. In: Proceeding of Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) Annual Meeting 2011, p. 175.

Liu J, Sussman DL, Yao J, Dwyer AJ, Summers RM. Association between Pericolonic Fat, Visceral Fat, and Colorectal Polyps. In: Proceeding of Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) Annual Meeting 2011, p. 220.

Linguraru MG, Richbourg WJ, Farooqui M, Aue G, Marti G, Summers RM, Wiestner A. Natural History of Splenomegaly in CLL from Automated Volumetric Analysis. Proceedings of 14th International Workshop on Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia 11 Supplement 2:S196 (2011).

Liu J, Hua J, Yao J, White J, Summers R. Computer-Aided Detection of Lymphadenopathy in Contrast-Enhanced Abdominal CT. AJR 198 (no. 5 Supplement): E226 (2012).

Linguraru M, Sandberg J, Petrick N, Summers R. Hepatic Volumetric Nomograms From Automated Analysis of Abdominal CT. AJR 198 (no. 5 Supplement): 126 (2012).

Yao J, Burns J, Wiese T, Summers R. Quantitative Vertebral Compression Fracture Evaluation Using a Height Compass. AJR 198 (no. 5 Supplement): E379 (2012).

Zhang W, Liu J, Nguyen T, Yao J, Louie A, Wank S, Summers R. Small bowel segmentation on high-resolution CT scans using the mesenteric vasculature as a roadmap. Int J CARS 7 (Suppl 1):S80-S81 (2012).

Yao J, Burns JE, Munoz H, Summers RM. Computer Aided Detection of Vertebral Body Fractures on Trauma CT. In: Proceeding of Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) Annual Meeting 2012, p. 143 and at rsna.org/Past_Meetings.aspx.

McKenna M, Wang S, Petrick N, Sahiner B, Summers RM. Prediction of Ground Truth and Expert Labels Using Distributed Human Intelligence in CT Colonography. In: Proceeding of Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) Annual Meeting 2012, p. 143 and at rsna.org/Past_Meetings.aspx.

Liu J, Feng C, Yao J, Liu JL, White JM, Summers RM. Organ Detection for False Positive Reduction in Computer-Aided Detection of Lymphadenopathy in Abdominal CT Scans. In: Proceeding of Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) Annual Meeting 2012, p. 143 and at rsna.org/Past_Meetings.aspx.

Liu JL, Linguraru MG, Wang S, Summers RM. Detection and Segmentation of Ovarian Cancer Metastases via Tumor Sensitive Matching Flow from Contrast-Enhanced Abdominal CT. In: Proceeding of Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) Annual Meeting 2012, p. 143 and at rsna.org/Past_Meetings.aspx.

Liu Y, Nacif MS, Liu S, Sibley C, Bluemke DA, Summers RM. Model-guided Segmentation of Myocardium for Low Dose Cardiac CT Images. In: Proceeding of Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) Annual Meeting 2012, p. 331 and at rsna.org/Past_Meetings.aspx.

Wei Z, Wang S, Yao J, Liu J, Summers RM. A Novel Circumferential Colon Coordinate System for Supine-Prone Registration of CT Colonography Using the Marginal Artery. In: Proceeding of Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) Annual Meeting 2012, p. 184 and at rsna.org/Past_Meetings.aspx.

Burns JE, Summers RM. Accelerating the Clinical Research Study Search: R Script Filtering of Dictated Reports from Radiology Information System (RIS) Searches. In: Proceeding of Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) Annual Meeting 2012, p. 336 and at rsna.org/Past_Meetings.aspx.

Nacif MS, Liu Y, Liu S, Sibley C, Summers RM, Yao J. Interstitial Myocardial Fibrosis Assessed as Left Ventricular 3D Extracellular Volume Fraction by Cardiac CT in Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy Patients. In: Proceeding of Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) Annual Meeting 2012, p. 65 and at rsna.org/Past_Meetings.aspx.

Huang J, Bluemke DA, Zhang X, Summers RM, Folio LR, Yao J. Assessing Tumor Velocity with a PACS-RIS Integrated Cumulative Reporting System. In: Proceeding of Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) Annual Meeting 2012, p. 336 and at rsna.org/Past_Meetings.aspx.


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This page last reviewed on 10/31/13



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